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Functional Red Yeast Rice Series

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The red yeast rice is also known as "Dan Qu", "The Magical Qu". Medicine books which clearly documented the medical efficacy of red yeast rice could date back to Yuan Dynasty. Rui Wu, in his "the daily grass" (1329), has a record that "red yeast brewing wine, invigorate the circulation of blood and have a drug potential". Contemporary Sihui Wu who was the imperial physician on food and drinks said in his "the main point of food and drink" that "red yeast: good for spleen, benefiting the breath, and mild". Danxi Zhu, the most famous physician in Jin and Yuan dynasty documented in his "Ben Cao Yan Yi Supplement" that "red yeast rice, invigorate the circulation of blood and help digest the food, good for spleen and stomach, cure dysentery, clear food and drink(of the body), nice to be eat for a long time."  
The famous herbal medicine works in Ming and Qing dynasties, such as Shizhen Li's "Compendium of Materia Medica", Ang Wang's "the Essential of Materia Medica", Yiluo Wu's "the New Materia Medica", Xiyong Miu's "the Overview of Materia Medica" etc, they all have more comprehensive records of red yeast rice as a drug and eating material.。
In the seventies of last century, a Japan Professor-Endo found "Monacolin-k" from the secondary level metabolites which could reduce serum cholesterol level in human body, caused the concern of the medical field on the red yeast rice. Furthermore, in 1985, U.S. scientists Goldstein and Brown found out the mechanism on how Monacolin-k inhibits the synthesis of cholesterol, and won a Nobel Prize then. Red yeast rice has thus become famous.  
On the basis of inheriting the traditional production process of red yeast rice, our company uses modern biotechnology to breed good bacteria, and adopt modern automatic fermentation equipment for the production of functional red yeast rice series. Our functional red yeast rice containing rich biological activity of enzymes and a variety of physiologically active substances, monacolin-K (L, M, J, X), ergosterol, ?-aminobutyric acid, natural plant hormone etc, with a high nutrition, health, medicinal value, without any negative effects, is a natural, safe and effective health food as good as a pharmaceutical raw material.
■The Effectiveness of Health Care
Since ancient times, the red yeast rice is considered very precious as a health supplement and has a good therapeutic efficacy towards certain diseases in Chinese traditional medicine. According to the theory of traditional Chinese iatrology, the red yeast rice is sweet and warm, with the regulation of blood lipid concentrations and mitigates the effect of cardiovascular disease. Recent studies also show that monascus also have a powerful natural antioxidants enhance liver function and anti-cancer effects, such as flavonoid phenols (flavonoids), as well as unsaturated fatty acids with blood-lipid-lowering effect, which have good health care effect.
◆Lower blood cholesterol and prevention of cardiovascular disease: the active ingredient are monacolin K and L, M, J, X5 structural analogues.
◆Hypotensive: Has an effective ingredient: r-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and the amino-glucoside (Glucosamine).
◆Hypoglycemic: physiologically active substances are uncertain.
◆The anti-cancer effects: the active ingredients are monacolin K, flavonoid phenols (flavonoids), monascus orange pigment (monasco rubin.Rubropunctatin) etc.◆ 预防老年痴呆症:高胆固醇会导致一种特殊蛋白质堆积在脑细胞中,引起脑细胞退化。
◆ Prevention of Alzheimer's disease: high cholesterol will lead to the accumulation of a special protein in brain cells, causing brain degeneration.
◆ New Medical Efficacy
• Immunity Regulation: monacolin-K,monascin, ankaflavin
• Anti-spoilage bacteria: monacolin-K ,rubropunctatin
• Antioxidant: Monascin,arkaflavin
• Bone Hyperplasia: monacolin-K
• Anti-inflammatory: monacolin-D
■ The Main Functional Ingredients and Its Mechanism of Action
◆ Monacolin K [monacolin-K, or commonly known as lovastatin could inhibit cholesterol synthesis rate-limiting enzyme (HMG-CoA reductase), and also play a role of lowing cholesterol, low-density cholesterol, triglycerides etc. Monacolin K is a new and efficient lipid-lowering product, can effectively reduce the body's total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG), and elevated beneficial to humans highdensity lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C)].
Research shows that the natural specially-made red yeast rice contains monacolin-K that has a specific inhibition on hydroxymethyl glutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA), the mechanism is:
• Effectively suppressed liver hydroxymethyl-glutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, reduce cholesterol synthesis, reduce intracellular cholesterol storage;
• Promoting LDL receptor synthesis, increasing LDL receptor activity and quantity, enhancing the uptake and metabolism of LDL cholesterol, reducing the concentration of the blood of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), thereby effectively preventing atherosclerosis;
• Inhibiting the synthesis of fatty acids and triglycerides in the liver, promoting the excretion of lipids, thereby reducing the levels of triglycerides in the blood;
• Monacolin K could also increase the level of the human body beneficial high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), so as to achieve the prevention of atherosclerosis, and even could reverse atherosclerosis.
◆ Ergosterol (precursor of vitamin D)
Converted into vitamin D, promoting the body's absorption of calcium, phosphorus and other elements. Conducive to bone formation, prevention of osteoporosis.
◆ γ-amino butyric acid (γ-GABA)
Lowering blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure.
◆ Natural plant hormone (Isoflavone)
Estrogenic substances can prevent osteoporosis, menopausal syndrome.
■ Monacolin K and Its Structural Features
Functional monascus' active ingredients are composed by of monacolin-K and its derivatives series, wherein the main ingredient Monacolin-K has two isomers: the lipid of formula monacolin-K and the acid Monacolin-K, respectively referred to as closed loopand open-loop monacolin-K.。
◆ The closed loop of Monacolin K is only a prodrug (molecular structure shown in Figure ①), which itself is inactive, subject to the carboxyl esterase hydrolysis change the structure of the human body, then it becomes open-loop monacolin-K with the active substance (molecularstructure shown in Figure ②), in order to play the lipid-lowering effect. Because of there are large individual differences within the ability of carboxyl esterase that body produces, thus the lipid-lowering effect of monacolin-K will be different with the patients that disparities, even completely ineffective for some individual patients.
How can we release all of the contributions of monacolin-K ?
Years ago, someone detected a trace and unstable active substances (molecular structure shown in Figure ②) from the natural fermented red yeast rice products. By mass spectrometry, the molecular structure of this substance with the carboxyl esterase the hydrolysis of monacolin-K was formed after the open-loop monacolin-k can be directly through competitive inhibition of HMG-COA reductase, then to suppress the body's synthesis of cholesterol, with no need of the body's own carboxyl esterase. The open-loop monacolin-K content in the functional red yeast rice that produced by our company could be more than 60%. It's in the leading level of this product.

The open loop Monacolin-k exists or not, or whether the identification of key natural fermentation of monascus. The general natural functional functional red yeast rice contains a certain proportion of open loop structure of Monacolin-k. It can be found through the high performance liquid phase. The characteristic absorption peak displayed from the map can be clearly seen.

■ Quality Indicators


Light red powder

Moisture                       <


Pb                           <


As                           <


Aflatoxin B1, g/Kg         <


The total number of colonies                    <


E. coli(MPN/100g)

May not be detected



■ Scope of Application
Health care products, health food, pharmaceutical raw materials
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